Sunday, February 15, 2009

Pangur Bán, Breatnais & naisc focail leis Gaeilge

Chuir mé dhá nóta ar ais go Barra Tóibín ó Caerdydd ina Bhreatain Bheag faoi naisc focail idir Gaeilge agus Breatnais. Scríobh mé ortsa féin ar ais mar sin go raibh ag feicthe mise leathanach baile leis iris "Dragún Glas" ina trí teangachaí, Béarla, Gaeilge agus Breatnais aige! Is cosúil é go cruinnithe ar an leithead ormsa.

Bheul, fhragairt sé litírín agam. Cóipím seo leis buíochas ort. Gabh mo leithscéal mar sin leagan bocht agam. Ni raibh mé a leagan an liosta séadsan féin. Tá sé anseo:


Tá sé tábhachtach a thuiscint, mar a dúirt mé cheana, nach ionann brí an fhocail sa Ghaeilge agus brí an fhocail sa Bhreatnais gach uile uair. Ach bíonn ionannas nó cosúlacht éigin i gceist i ngach aon phéire acu.

Marr bharr ar sin, tá cuid de na focail sa Bhreatnais seanda as dáta fileata, ach is fearr iad sin a chur san áireamh chomh maith maraon leis na cinn atá beo sa lá atá inniu ann...

**********************************************************************************
Máthair = modryb ('aintín' sa Bhreatnais, 'mam' an focal Breatnaise do 'máthair'); athair = ewythyr ('uncail' sa Bhreatnais, 'dad' an focal Breatnaise do 'athair'); carraig = carreg; mór = mawr; beag = bach; glaoch = galw: garbh = garw; tarbh = tarw; marbh = marw; capall = ceffyl; marc = march; dreoilín = dryw; fear = gŵr ('g' in áit 'f'); bean = benyw; fíon = gwin; fíor = gwir; fiú = gwiw; faoileann = gwylan; feamainn = gwymon; trá = traeth; muir = môr; feo = gwyw; doras = drws; críon = crin; uisce = dŵr ( cf: 'dobhareach'); roth = rhod (focal fileata); eaglais = eglwys (Laidin); Aifreann = Offeren (Laidin); scadán = sgadan; abhainn = afon; much = mochyn; lao = llo; cumar = cymer; inis = ynys; úr = ir; glas = glas; glan = glan; drom = drum; tulach = tyla; leitir = llethr; cnoc = cnwc; féar = gwair; cailc = calc; diseart = dyserth; cibeal = cybalfa; manach = mynach; pobal = pobl; deich = deg; dó = dau, trí = tri; minic = mynych; ór = aur; coróin = coron; airgead = arian; cos = coes; láimh = llaw; craiceann = croen; bó = buwch; néal = niwl, coinín = cwningen; scamall = cwmwl (Laidin); tír = tir; cú = ci; coileán = colwyn; buachaill = bugail ('aoire' cf: 'buachaill bó'); mín = mwyn; caoin = cu; mí = mis, bliain = blwyddyn; Luan = Llun; Máirt = Mawrth; Satharn = Sadwrn; bord = bord; long = llong; claíomh = cleddyf; bráthair = brawd; neamh = nef; caol = cul; leathan = llydan; Ruairí = Rhodri; Siobhan = Siwan; Seán = Sion; Máire = Mair.
*************************************************************************************

Dán (tallann) = dawn; bard = bardd; marcaíocht = marchogaeth; dealbh = delw; dílis = dilys; Lúgh (an dia Ceilteach) = Llew; loingeas = llynges; slad = lladd; Máire (Muire) = Mair; coll = collen; eiscir = esgair; dair = derwen; doire = deri; práis = pres; airgead = arian; iarann = haearn; oidhear = eira; cathair = caer; príomh = prif; scoil = ysgol; eascair = esgor; lios = llys; cruit = crwth; lann = llafn; -lann (cf: 'leabharlann')= llan; cill = cil; aer = awyr; moladh = moliant; bán = pan ('Pangur Bán'); túr = tŵr; trasna = traws; canadh = canu; im = ymenyn; cailc = calch; cam = cam; léim = llam; lár (cf: 'urlár') = llawr; lán= llawn; do = dy; mac = mab; bradach, bradaí = brad; aimsir = amser; bolg = bol; coileach = ceiliog; éan = edn ('dofednod' = éanlaith chlós na feirme); teine = tân; cluain = llwyn, sean = hen; síon = hin;
********************************************************************************
Nóta: 'Pangur Bán'.

Is dócha gur 'pan-gŵr' ('bán-fear') atá i gceist anseo. Sin é an míniú is fearr liomsa air mar scéal.

D'imigh an manach ainaithnid a scríobh an dán álainn sin as Eirinn go dtí Caergybi ('Holyhead') chun dul ar aghaidh go dti an Eoraip.

Ar a shlí ó dheas dó is cosúil gur chuir sé aithne ar an gcat bán seo sa Bhreatain Bheag. Bhí an t-ainm 'Pan-gŵr' ar an ainmhí ionúin cheana. Ghlac an manach leis mar chompánach bóthair agus ghlac sé leis an t-ainm Breatnaise chomh maith.

Éireannach dílis ab ea é, áfach, agus do bhain sé feidhm as an aidiacht 'bán' chun cruth na Gaeilge a chur ar 'Pan-gŵr' mar ainm!

Pangur Bán, Welsh & Word Links with Irish.

I got two notes back from Barry Tobin of Cardiff in Wales about word links between Irish and Welsh. I had written to him myself as I had seen his "Green Dragon" site in three languages, English, Irish and Welsh! It seems designed for the likes of me.

Well, he answered my little letter. I copy this with thanks to him. Excuse my poor rendering. I did not translate the list itself. Here it is: (see above)


It's important to understand, as I said already, not to liken a meaning of a word in Irish and a meaning of a word in Welsh every time the same. But there can (usually) be some likeness or similarity in question in every pair of them.

It's foremost considering that there's a share of the words in Old Welsh from poetic material, but they are regarded as good examples of including the best of whatever's surviving daily there today...

Note: Pangur Bán.

Probably it's "'pan-gŵr' ('bán-fear')" [="white-man"] that's in question here. That's the best meaning for me according to its story.

An unknown monk went out to write that beautiful poetry from Ireland towards Caergybi/ Holyhead from where he set out towards Europe.

On the way to the south it seems that he got knowledge of this white cat in Wales. The name "'pan-gŵr'" was from the dear animal already known. The monk called for companion for the road and he called it by the Welsh name as well.

He was a loyal Irishman, nonetheless, and he found no problem from the adjective "bán" ("white") to fit the Irish that's "Pan-gŵr" for a name!

image/íomhá (?!). Feic dán anseo/ See poem here: "Pangur Bán" poem/dán

2 comments:

Bo said...

A lot more of these are Latin borrowings, ussually ecclesiastical, than are noted as such: dyserth, Sadwrn, traeth, mynach, coron etc are all from Latin. So they aren't true Insular Celtic congnates between W and Ir. at all. But the rest are. Modryb is only a half-cognate of mathair - it points back to a British i-stem *matrapi, 'aunt' ('motherly person, little mother' - something like that) - the word mam (<*mamma) is a hypocoristic that has displaced the original celtic *matir, from which Irish mathair descends. I'm a bit suspicious about ewythyr as a cognate of athair but willing to be persuaded - the problem is you are starting from something like *(p)atir, and the -t- should go to -d-, not -th-, in Welsh, and I'm not sure that a cluster ewy- could arise from primitive *a-. There is a cognate of athair though in the word edryd, 'lineage, [paternal] descent', which points to a British word *atritos, or the like, 'fatherly thing' (note the celtic loss of I-E *p-!).

The Welsh words for 'mother' and father should have been **mod(y)r and **ed(y)r, but as I say, they generalised the pet-forms *mamma and *tatos, --> mam and tad.

Fionnchú said...

Go raibh maith agatsa/ llawer o ddiolch, Bo! I knew you'd like this list. And, I learned a bumptiously stalwart word of the day, "hypocoristic." All those Greek syllables for but a "pet name," indeed.

P.S. Checking "diolch" in Gareth King's misleadingly titled "Pocket Modern Welsh Dictionary" (unless you have a very large coat), I see this phrase to make your day: "Mae'n bosibi ein bod ni yma diolch i gomed." Maybe that happy portent (unlike that in the Bayeux Tapestry) can be traced back to those B.L. mss. that you're researching?